Saturday, May 11, 2013

Thomas "Stonewall" Jacksondied May 10, 1863
Jackson's "Chancellorsville" Portrait,
taken at a Spotsylvania County farm on April 26, 1863,
seven days before he was wounded at the Battle of Chancellorsville

"My religious belief teaches me to feel as safe in battle as in bed.  God has fixed the time for my death.  I do not concern myself about that, but to be always ready, no matter when it may overtake me. ... That is the way all men should live, and then all would be equally brave."
In the spring of 1851, Jackson accepted a newly created teaching position at the Virginia Military Institute (VMI), in Lexington, Virginia.  He became Professor of Natural and Experimental Philosophy and Instructor of Artillery.

Virginia Military Institute (VMI), in Lexington, Virginia
During his decade at VMI, Jackson found his religious home: the Lexington Presbyterian Church. He rapidly became one of the most devout Calvinists of his time. His faith was inflexible and total. Jackson dutifully attended every church service, even though he slept through part of each service. He tithed faithfully. Keeping the Sabbath holy became an obsession. No place existed in his Sunday schedule for labor, newspapers, or secular conversation.

Elinor "Ellie" Junkin
Jackson married twice, both times to daughters of Presbyterian ministers. While an instructor at VMI, Jackson married Elinor "Ellie" Junkin in 1853, whose father, George Junkin, was president of Washington College (later named Washington and Lee University) in Lexington. 
George Junkin
An addition was built onto the president's residence for the Jacksons. When Robert E. Lee became president of Washington College he lived in the same home, now known as the Lee-Jackson House.

Eleanor Jackson's Obituary
Ellie gave birth to a  stillborn son on October 22, 1854, experiencing a hemorrhage an hour later that proved fatal.

Elinor Jackson's Grave
During the summer of 1856 Jackson toured Europe, visiting Belgium, France, Germany, Switzerland, England and Scotland.  

Jackson, 1855
After returning to the United States, Jackson married again, on July 16, 1857.  Mary Anna Morrison, called Anna by friends and family, was from North Carolina, where her father was the first president of Davidson College.  She was 25 years old; he was 33.  They had a daughter named Mary Graham on April 30, 1858, but the baby died less than a month later.

Mary Anna Morrison Jackson
Jackson was revered by many of the African-Americans in town, both slaves and free blacks. He was instrumental in the organization in 1855 of Sunday School classes for blacks at the Presbyterian Church. His second wife, Mary Anna Jackson, taught with Jackson.  The pastor, Dr. William Spottswood White, described the relationship between Jackson and his Sunday afternoon students: "In their religious instruction he succeeded wonderfully. His discipline was systematic and firm, but very kind. ... His servants reverenced and loved him, as they would have done a brother or father. ... He was emphatically the black man's friend." He addressed his students by name and they in turn referred to him affectionately as "Marse Major."

Jackson's family owned six slaves in the late 1850s. Three (Hetty, Cyrus, and George, a mother and two teenage sons) were received as a wedding present.  Another, Albert, requested that Jackson purchase him and allow him to work for his freedom; he was employed as a waiter in one of the Lexington hotels and Jackson rented him to VMI.  Amy also requested that Jackson purchase her from a public auction and she served the family as a cook and housekeeper. The sixth, Emma, was a four-year-old orphan with a learning disability, accepted by Jackson from an aged widow and presented to his second wife, Mary Anna, as a gift. 

Jackson, 1857
Jackson purchased the only house he ever owned while in Lexington. Built in 1801, the brick town house at 8 East Washington Street was purchased by Jackson in 1859. He lived in it for two years before being called to serve in the Confederacy.  Anna wrote, "It was genuine happiness to him to have a home of his own... and it was truly his castle." They began decorating their home with furniture they bought on their honeymoon and other trips north. During the summer months, they worked in their flower and vegetable gardens.

Jackson House in Lexington
Jackson's routine at home was rigid. Family prayers were held at 7 o'clock in the morning, and all members of his household were required to be present, but the absence of anyone did not delay the services a minute. Breakfast followed, and he went to his classroom at 8 o'clock, remaining until 11, when he returned to his study. Between dinner and supper his attention was occupied by his garden, his farm, and the duties of the church, in which he was a deacon. After supper he devoted his time for half an hour to a mental review of the studies of the next day, then to reading or conversation until 10 o'clock, at which time he always retired.

Jackson and the VMI corps of cadets served as gallows guard at the December 1859, hanging of John Brown for murder and treason. War clouds thickened in the months thereafter.  Jackson remained calm. The dissolution of the Union, he told a minister, “can come only by God’s permission, and will only be permitted if for His people’s good.”

Harpers Ferry
After the Civil War began he appears to have hired out or sold his slaves. Mary Anna Jackson, in her 1895 memoir, said, "our servants ... without the firm guidance and restraint of their master, the excitement of the times proved so demoralizing to them that he deemed it best for me to provide them with good homes among the permanent residents."

In 1861, Jackson became a drill master for some of the many new recruits in the  Confederate Army.  On April 27, 1861, Virginia Governor John Letcher ordered Jackson to take command at Harpers Ferry, where he would assemble and command the famous "Stonewall Brigade", consisting of the 2nd, 4th, 5th, 27th, and 33rd Virginia Infantry regiments. All of these units were from the Shenandoah Valley region of Virginia, where Jackson located his headquarters during the first two years of the war. Jackson became known for his relentless drilling of his troops; he believed discipline was vital to success on the battlefield. 

Jackson's horse, which he rode throughout the Civil War, was captured from Union forces at Harpers Ferry by the Confederates; it was given to Mrs Jackson and named "Fancy." Jackson later took the horse for his own use, and he became known as "Little Sorrel." When  Jackson was tagged with his nickname "Stonewall" at First Manassas/Bull Run, he was riding on Little Sorrel. Jackson would fight in 16 Civil War engagements.

First Manassas/Bull Run
Jackson rose to prominence and earned his famous nickname at the First Battle of Bull Run  on July 21, 1861. As the Confederate lines began to crumble under heavy Union assault, Jackson's brigade provided crucial reinforcements on Henry House Hill, demonstrating the discipline he instilled in his men. General Barnard Elliott Bee, Jr.,  exhorted his own troops to re-form by shouting, "There is Jackson standing like a stone wall. Let us determine to die here, and we will conquer. Rally behind the Virginians!"  There is some controversy over Bee's statement and intent, which could not be clarified because he was killed almost immediately after speaking and none of his subordinate officers wrote reports of the battle. Major Burnett Rhett, chief of staff to General Joseph Johnston, claimed that Bee was angry at Jackson's failure to come immediately to the relief of Bee's and Bartow's brigades while they were under heavy pressure. Those who subscribe to this opinion believe that Bee's statement was meant to be pejorative: "Look at Jackson standing there like a damned stone wall!" 

Barnard Elliott Bee, Jr.
Regardless of the controversy and the delay in relieving Bee, Jackson's brigade, which would thenceforth be known as the Stonewall Brigade, stopped the Union assault and suffered more casualties than any other Southern brigade that day; Jackson has since then been generally known as Stonewall Jackson. 

The close relationship between Jackson and his younger sister, Laura Jackson Arnold, was destroyed during the war. Laura was an outspoken Unionist who became estranged from her brother and other members of her family. Federal troops occupied her hometown of Beverly [West] Virginia during most of the war, and Mrs. Arnold cared for Federal wounded in her home.

For a time, Anna remained at their home in Lexington, but soon began to travel back and forth between her parents' plantation, Cottage Home, and friends and relatives in the Richmond area. From 1861-63, the Jacksons were apart more than they were together. During the time apart, the couple wrote frequent letters. 

In the winter of 1861-62, Lt. Colonel Lewis Tilghman Moore, commander of the 31st Virginia Militia, offered his home in Winchester to serve as the headquarters for Jackson, while his troops were in winter quarters. Jackson lived there from November 1861 to March 1862. Anna joined Jackson in Winchester in December 1861. While living there, the Jacksons became very fond of the people of Winchester, and referred to it as their winter home.

Winchester, Virginia
In the spring of 1862, Jackson was ordered by Richmond to operate in the Shenandoah Valley.  Jackson possessed the attributes to succeed against his poorly coordinated and sometimes timid opponents: a combination of great audacity, excellent knowledge and shrewd use of the terrain, and the ability to inspire his troops to great feats of marching and fighting.  Jackson's reputation for moving his troops so rapidly earned them the oxymoronic  nickname "foot cavalry". He became the most celebrated soldier in the Confederacy (until he was eventually eclipsed by Lee) and lifted the morale of the Southern public.

Jackson was seventeen years younger than Lee. He had few friends.  An unswerving purpose to serve God and country dominated his thinking. Wrapped in silence, blind obedience, and total devotion to God, he was exceedingly contentious with many of his subordinate officers. Yet three things bound Lee and Jackson closely to one another: love of Virginia, faith in God, and aggressiveness in combat. Jackson’s feelings for his commander were superlative: “So great is my confidence in General Lee that I am willing to follow him blindfolded.”  Inside the army, and throughout the Southern press, Lee was the most respected general and Jackson the most beloved. 

When Lee decided to invade the North in the Maryland Campaign of fall, 1862, Jackson took Harpers Ferry, then joined the rest of the army at Sharpsburg, Maryland, where they fought McClellan in the Battle of Antietam (Sharpsburg). Jackson's men bore the brunt of the initial attacks on the northern end of the battlefield and, at the end of the day, successfully resisted a breakthrough on the southern end when Jackson's subordinate, General A.P. Hill, arrived at the last minute from Harpers Ferry. The Confederate forces held their position, but the battle was extremely bloody for both sides, and Lee withdrew the Army of Northern Virginia back across the Potomoac River, ending the invasion. 

Confederate Dead at Antietam
Before the armies camped for winter, Jackson's Second Corps held off a strong Union assault against the right flank of the Confederate line at the Battle of Fredericksburg, in what became a decisive Confederate victory. 

Battle of Fredericksburg
Just before the battle, Jackson was delighted to receive a letter about that Mary Anna had given birth to his daughter on November 23. The Jacksons named her Julia Laura, after his mother and sister.

At Fredericksburg, a medic asked would could be done after observing the destruction and looting done to the city. Jackson venomously replied, "Kill 'em, sir. Kill 'em all."

Ruins of Fredericksburg
Anna and the baby visited Jackson in April 1863.  Anna had not seen her husband for thirteen months, and she later wrote that their time together was all the more joyful because of the baby. To provide a keepsake of the happy occasion, Anna persuaded her husband to sit for a photograph, which was taken on April 26, 1863.  She later recalled that, "he sat in the hall of the house where a strong wind blew in his face causing him to frown." The men who served under Jackson preferred this picture of their general to all others, but Mrs. Jackson never shared their opinion. It lent "a sternness to his countenance that was not natural," she wrote. It would be the last photograph of Jackson ever taken.

Their nine-day reunion was interrupted by a renewal of the fighting. Anna and the baby returned to Cottage Home to live with Reverend Morrison.  Anna Jackson wrote a letter to the general after leaving him at the end of April 1863:
My precious husband,I will go to Hanover and wait there until I hear from you again, and I do trust I may be permitted to come back to you again in a few days. I am much disappointed at not seeing you again, but I commend you, my precious darling, to the merciful keeping of the God of battles, and do pray most earnestly for the success of our army this day. Oh! that our Heavenly Father may preserve and guide and bless you, is my most earnest prayer.
I leave the shirt and socks for you with Mrs. Neale, fearing I may not see you again, but I do hope it may be my privilege to be with you in a few days. Our little darling will miss dearest Papa. She is so good and sweet this morning.God bless and keep you, my darling,Your devoted little wife
At the Battle of Chancellorsville (April 30-May 6, 1863), the Army of Northern Virginia was faced with a serious threat by the Army of the Potomac and its new commanding general, General Joseph Hooker.  General Lee decided to employ a risky tactic to take the initiative and offensive away from Hooker's new southern thrust—he decided to divide his forces. Jackson and his entire corps were sent on an aggressive flanking maneuver to the right of the Union lines. This flanking movement would be one of the most successful and dramatic of the war. 

 Fitzhugh Lee
While riding with his infantry in a wide berth well south and west of the Federal line of battle, Jackson employed General Fitzhugh Lee's cavalry to provide for better reconnaissance in regards to the exact location of the Union right and rear. The results were far better than even Jackson could have hoped. Lee found the entire right side of the Federal lines in the middle of open field, guarded merely by two guns that faced westward, as well as the supplies and rear encampments. The men were eating and playing games in carefree fashion, completely unaware that an entire Confederate corps was less than a mile away. What happened next is given in Fitzhugh Lee's own words:
So impressed was I with my discovery, that I rode rapidly back to the point on the Plank road where I had left my cavalry, and back down the road Jackson was moving, until I met "Stonewall" himself. "General," said I, "if you will ride with me, halting your column here, out of sight, I will show you the enemy's right, and you will perceive the great advantage of attacking down the Old turnpike instead of the Plank road, the enemy's lines being taken in reverse. Bring only one courier, as you will be in view from the top of the hill." Jackson assented, and I rapidly conducted him to the point of observation. There had been no change in the picture. I only knew Jackson slightly. I watched him closely as he gazed upon Howard's troops. It was then about 2 P.M. His eyes burned with a brilliant glow, lighting up a sad face. His expression was one of intense interest, his face was colored slightly with the paint of approaching battle, and radiant at the success of his flank movement. To the remarks made to him while the unconscious line of blue was pointed out, he did not reply once during the five minutes he was on the hill, and yet his lips were moving. From what I have read and heard of Jackson since that day, I know now what he was doing then. Oh! "beware of rashness," General Hooker. Stonewall Jackson is praying in full view and in rear of your right flank! While talking to the Great God of Battles, how could he hear what a poor cavalryman was saying. "Tell General Rodes," said he, suddenly whirling his horse towards the courier, "to move across the Old plank road; halt when he gets to the Old turnpike, and I will join him there." One more look upon the Federal lines, and then he rode rapidly down the hill, his arms flapping to the motion of his horse, over whose head it seemed, good rider as he was, he would certainly go. I expected to be told I had made a valuable personal reconnaissance—saving the lives of many soldiers, and that Jackson was indebted to me to that amount at least. Perhaps I might have been a little chagrined at Jackson's silence, and hence commented inwardly and adversely upon his horsemanship.
Alas! I had looked upon him for the last time.
Jackson immediately returned to his corps and arranged his divisions into a line of battle to charge directly into the oblivious Federal right. The Confederates marched silently until they were merely several hundred feet from the Union position, then released a bloodthirsty cry and full charge. Many of the Federals were captured without a shot fired, the rest were driven into a full rout. Jackson pursued relentlessly back toward the center of the Federal line until dusk.
Illustration of Jackson Shooting at Chancellorsville
Darkness ended the assault. As Jackson and his staff were returning to camp on May 2, they were mistaken for a Union cavalry force by the 18th North Carolina Infantry regiment who shouted, "Halt, who goes there?", but fired before evaluating the reply. Frantic shouts by Jackson's staff identifying the party were replied to by Major John D. Barry with the retort, "It's a damned Yankee trick! Fire!"  A second volley was fired in response.

John D. Barry 
Jackson was hit by three bullets, two in the left arm and one in the right hand. Several other men in his staff were killed, in addition to many horses. Darkness and confusion prevented Jackson from getting immediate care. He was dropped from his stretcher while being evacuated because of incoming artillery rounds. 

His horse was named "Little Sorrel", a small chestnut gelding.  He rode Little Sorrel throughout the war, and was riding him when he was shot at Chancellorsville.  The horse ran off in the confusion of the shooting.

Hunter McGuire
Because of his injuries, Jackson's left arm had to be amputated by Dr. Hunter McGuire.  His l arm was amputated at 2:00 AM Sunday, May 3rd, in a Field Hospital, two inches below the shoulder, after the bullet beneath the skin on the back of his right hand was removed.  The bullet was first removed from his right hand to see the type of ball.  Confederates used 
a round ball from a smooth bore musket. Federals did not use smooth bore guns. This was proof  that he had been wounded by his own men (18th N. C. Regiment).  One half hour after the operation he was given a cup of coffee. 

Jackson turned to Captain James Smith (a theology student) and asked if he was there at 
the operation. When he answered affirmatively, Jackson asked if he had said anything under the chloroform. Smith assured him "No." Then Jackson said "I have always thought it wrong to administer chloroform in cases where there is a probability of immediate death," but, he continued "It was the most delightful physical sensation I ever experienced. I seem to remember the most delightful music that ever greeted my ears, but I should dislike above all things to enter eternity in such a condition." Captain Smith told him he should sleep. Jackson then slept until 9:00 AM Sunday. 

Jackson seemed to be doing fine the following morning, and was in good spirits. He sent Captain Joseph Morrison, his wife's brother, to Richmond to tell Anna about his wounding and to bring her back with him.

Reverend Lacy, the 2nd Corps Chaplain, came in during the morning. He looked at Jackson's stump and exclaimed," Oh General, what a calamity." Jackson would have none of that. He insisted he was not depressed or unhappy. He was certain that the Heavenly Father had designed the affliction of the loss of his arm for his own good. He felt in this or the future world to come he would discover that what seems like a calamity was actually a blessing. He told Reverend Lacy he felt that so strongly that if he had the power to replace his arm, he would not do so unless he knew the replacing was the Will of God.

His amputated arm was buried by Lacy at the Lacy house, "Ellwood", in Orange County, Virginia, near the field hospital.

Lee wrote to Jackson after learning of his injuries, stating "Could I have directed events, I would have chosen for the good of the country to be disabled in your stead." Lee also sent a personal message: "Give him my affectionate regards, and tell him to make haste and get well, and come back to me as soon as he can. He has lost his left arm, but I have lost my right arm."

Jedediah Hotchkiss
On Monday, the 4th, about 8:00 AM, Jackson left the Field Hospital in an ambulance on a 
mattress accompanied by Dr. McGuire. They traveled 27 miles on rough roads which Major Jedediah Hotchkiss had attempted to clear of wagons and obstructions. The teamsters resented having to give way to an ambulance until they heard who was in it. Jackson felt well and was talkative during the trip.  They arrived at the Chandler Plantation house, "Fairfield", about 8:00 PM.  Dr. McGuire put General Jackson in the office building not connected with the house, as there was an officer with erysipelas in the main house. He had tea and bread, then slept long and quietly.  Jackson hoped that after a few days of rest he could go home to Lexington.

Chandler Plantation Office Building, where Jackson died
The following morning, the general was alert when he awakened. His wounds were doing well, and he ate heartily and was cheerful throughout the day. Five different physicians examined Jackson, but Dr. McGuire was the only physician present the entire six days. He asked Dr. McGuire, "From the appearance of my wounds, how long will I be kept from 
the field?" He said to Captain Smith, "Many would regard my wounds as a great misfortune, I regard them as one of the blessings of my life." Captain Smith said, "All things work together for the good of those that love God." "Yes" Jackson replied, "that's it, that's it." He ate heartily and was cheerful throughout the day.

He was thought to be out of harm's way; but he already had classic symptoms of pneumonia, complaining of a sore chest. This soreness was mistakenly thought to be the result of his rough handling in the battlefield evacuation.

During the night of May 6-7 (Wednesday-Thursday) the fifth day after amputation a striking 
change occurred. Jackson awakened about 1:00 AM. He was nauseous and had pain. He would not awaken Dr. McGuire who was asleep on a cot in his room. Jackson ordered his servant Jim to put wet towels on his abdomen. Cold cloths did no good, nausea continued and pain in his right side added to his nausea. He suffered through the night and finally, around dawn, called Dr. McGuire, who stated, "I found him suffering, great pain." Examination revealed pleuropneumonia of his right side. Pneumonia, so soon after amputation, was clinically obvious Thursday, May 7th, the fifth day after amputation and his doctors directed their efforts toward this new enemy. They treated his crippling pain with mercury, antimony and opium. 

Later that day, Anna and the baby arrived.  She had left him in good health just eight days earlier.  Jackson had to be woken to speak to her, and soon nodded off again, but in the afternoon, he seemed better, and the doctors had hope of his recovery. But Anna later said that he lay most of the time in a semiconscious state.  At one point when he awoke from a stupor, he said, "My darling, you are very much loved. You are one of the most precious wives in this world. I know you would give your life for me, but I am perfectly resigned. Do not be sad. I hope I may recover. Pray for me, but always remember in your prayers to use the petition, 'Thy Will be done'." 

On May 8, the pain in his right side had eased, but he was breathing with great difficulty and complained of exhaustion. His fever and restlessness increased. Despite the efforts of pneumonia specialists, nothing seemed to bring relief to the General. He observed, "I see from the number of physicians that you think my condition dangerous, but I thank God, if it is His will, that I am ready to go." 

On May 10, in the early morning, Anna said to Jackson that he would soon be in Heaven.  She said, "Do you not feel willing to acquiesce in God's allotment, if He will you go today?" With great difficulty he replied, "I prefer it." Anna told him that "Before this day closes, you will be with the Blessed Savior in his glory." Jackson said, "I will be an infinite gainer to be translated." He was unconscious all the morning.

Later, Anna brought five-month-old Julia into the room and placed her on the bed. The general's face lit up with a smile, and said, "Little darling sweet one," then fell back into unconsciousness. 

The doctors lost all hope of Jackson's recovery.  He declined brandy and water and said, "It will only delay my departure and do no good. I want to preserve my mind to the last."

Anna later wrote, "Tears were shed over that dying bed by strong men who were unused to weep." On his death bed, he said towards the end "It is the Lord's Day; my wish is fulfilled. I have always desired to die on Sunday." Dr. McGuire wrote an account of his final hours and his last words:
A few moments before he died he cried out in his delirium, "Order A.P. Hill to prepare for action! Pass the infantry to the front rapidly! Tell Major Hawks"—then stopped, leaving the sentence unfinished. 
Presently a smile of ineffable sweetness spread itself over his pale face, and he said quietly, and with an expression, as if of relief, "Let us cross over the river, and rest under the shade of the trees."
Jackson died of complications from pneumonia at 3:15 in the afternoon on May 10, 1863, at the age of 39. 

Jackson's Death Bed
His body was moved to the Governor's Mansion in Richmond for the public to mourn.

Upon hearing of Jackson's death, Robert E. Lee mourned the loss of both a friend and a trusted commander. The night Lee learned of Jackson's death, he told his cook, "William, I have lost my right arm" and "I'm bleeding at the heart."

On May 15, 1863, Jackson's funeral was held in Lexington, and hundreds came to pay him tribute.   He was buried in the Stonewall Jackson Memorial Cemetery, Lexington, Virginia. 

VMI Cadets at Jackson's Grave

Jackson Grave
After the funeral, Anna returned with Julia to her father's house in North Carolina. She wore mourning clothes for the rest of her life.

Mourners at Jackson's Grave

Jackson Monument in Cemetery
 Jackson was greatly admired and respected throughout the South, and his death had a profound effect there on civilians and soldiers alike.

Illustration of Robert E. Lee at Jackson's Grave

Mary Ann and Julia Laura Jackson
Anna and Julia moved to Charlotte in 1873 so that Julia could attend the Charlotte Institute for Young Ladies.  

In 1885, Julia Laura Jackson married William Christian and they had two children: Julia Jackson Christian and Thomas Jonathan Jackson Christian.  She died of typhoid fever at the age of 26 in 1889. Anna raised her two grandchildren, Julia Jackson Christian (1887-1991), who married Edmund R. Preston; and Thomas Jonathan Jackson Christian (1888-1952), who married three times. Both of Jackson's grandchildren had several children; thus there are many living descendants of Stonewall Jackson.

Anna Jackson wrote two books about her husband: Life and Letters of General Thomas J. Jackson, published in 1892, and the story of his service during the Civil War, which was published as Memoirs of Stonewall Jackson in 1895. 

In 1898 Anna organized the Stonewall Jackson Chapter of the United Daughters of the Confederacy in Charlotte, and was elected President for life. In her last years, Anna lived in Charlotte with her granddaughter.  Mary Anna Jackson never remarried, and was known as the "Widow of the Confederacy", living to the age of 83; she died on March 24, 1915. 

Jackson's horse, Little Sorrel, became famous and revered after the war. At first the horse was pastured at Mrs Jackson's home in North Carolina, but later became the mascot at the Virginia Military Institute. He became a celebrity, appearing at hundreds of fairs and exhibitions. 

"Little Sorrel" at VMI
Infirm at the age of 36, Little Sorrel was sent to the Confederate Soldier's Home for board and care. A hoist used to lift him to his feet slipped and he fell breaking his back. He was euthanasia at age 36. His remains minus his hide were eventually buried on the parade grounds at V.M.I. The hide was stretched over a likeness and displayed in a standing position in a museum at the Veterans Home until 1949 when it was finally returned to V.M.I. 

At VMI, a bronze statue of Jackson by Moses Ezekiel stands outside the main entrance to the cadet barracks; first-year cadets exiting the barracks through that archway are required to honor Jackson's memory by saluting the statue.

The Commonwealth of Virginia honors Jackson's birthday on Lee-Jackson Day, a state holiday observed since 1904. It is currently observed on the Friday preceding the third Monday in January.

During a training exercise in Virginia by U.S. Marines in 1921, the Marine commander, General Smedley Butler, was told by a local farmer that Stonewall Jackson's arm was buried nearby under a granite marker, to which Butler replied, "Bosh! I will take a squad of Marines and dig up that spot to prove you wrong!"  Butler found the arm in a box under the marker. He later replaced the wooden box with a metal one, and reburied the arm. He left a plaque on the granite monument marking the burial place of Jackson's arm.

Burial Site of Jackson's Arm
Today, the Jackson Shrine is part of Fredericksburg & Spotsylvania National Military Park. The office is the only plantation structure remaining. The Chandler house burned at some point after the Civil War, and its shell was dismantled in the early 1900's. Once established as an historic "shrine," the office underwent restorations in the 1920's and the 1960's.   The National Park Service has augmented some of the items used during Jackson's stay with other pieces from the era, along with a few reproductions, to recreate the scene of those tragic last days of his life.

Stone marking spot where Jackson was wounded
The VMI Museum today is a major repository of artifacts relating to Jackson. His favorite hat, two uniforms, the raincoat he was wearing when shot and many items from the classroom he used while on the staff as well as his horse. "Little Sorrel." 

Raincoat that Jackson was wearing when shot

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